Main Article Content


Pesticides have been adopted by both small and large scale farmers in the management of pests, to boost agricultural production. This review discusses the increasing usage of herbicides compared to fungicide and insecticides, which used to be the predominantly used pesticides in Ghana. Risks associated with herbicide handling practices are also discussed. Majority of reports for the review were sourced from post graduate theses, but also from journals, technical reports and newsletters. Wide acceptance of herbicides in Ghana’s agriculture is more recent relative to insecticides, which have been used on cocoa for over six decades. Herbicide consumption in Ghana is increasing rapidly with annual importation rising from 2,186t in 2002 to 1,005,815t in 2012 compared to 4,130t to 4,749.39t of insecticides and 1,079t to 3,611.28t of fungicides over the same period. Herbicide misapplications, mixing different types to form cocktails and non-usage of protective gear are common practices. Unlike insecticides, the notion that herbicides, are generally not poisonous to humans, since they are applied to kill plants and not animals heightens poisoning risks. Contrarily, toxicity of some herbicides are however comparative to insecticides. Herbicide poisoning levels through spraying among farmers and residues in foodstuffs are rarely studied in Ghana. Where available, the studies mostly looked at pesticides in general but results and discussions tend to skew focus on insecticides. It is therefore imperative to conduct herbicide target specific poisoning levels among farmers and also residues in foodstuffs, water and soil.

Article Details

How to Cite
Frimpong-Anin, K., Mintah, P., Annor, B., Ohene-Mensah, G., Arthur, S., & Opoku, J. A. (2018). Changing Pattern of Pesticide usage in Ghana and the hidden Risks of herbicide handling: A Review. Journal of Energy and Natural Resource Management (JENRM), 4(3). Retrieved from